Tag Archives: Corsets

Corsets at Chautauqua

29 Nov

Facing Miller Park at the intersection of Pratt and Morris avenues, The Colonnade was the business center of Chautauqua Institution.

The Colonnade as it appeared in 1909. You can see the vine-covered pergola on the right.

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Visitors approaching The Colonnade from the south passed through a lovely, vine-covered pergola.

The pergola with The Colonnade beyond it and to the left.

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The Colonnade was a busy place. Nearby was the post office, where residents retrieved and sent mail.

The Colonnade itself was a favorite place for friends to gather. It housed a grocery, a dry-goods store, a hair salon, a barber shop, a drug store, and various other merchants.

One retailer that managed to secure a prime location in The Colonnade was an establishment called Spirella Parlour, which was a genteel store name for the Spirella Corset Company.

A Chautauqua post card modified by the Spirella Corset Company to show the location of their shop at The Colonnade, Chautauqua, New York.

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The Spirella Corset Company had factories established in Pennsylvania and Canada when they set up shop in The Colonnade at Chautauqua. Wedged between a ladies’ dress shop on one side and the main hall, their’s was an ideal location. The store was staffed by “skillful corsetières” (more on them in a moment).

A trade card for Ball’s “health preserving” corsets, from about 1880.

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In Isabella’s time, every woman—and many girls—wore corsets. They were an essential element of a lady’s undergarments.

Trade card for the Bortree Adjustable Duplex Corset by Bortree Manufacturing Company, about 1890.

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But corsets did not last very long. Their stays had a tendency to break; and since corsets were worn over only a thin muslin chemise or slip, perspiration and natural skin oils often stained the corset fabric or rusted the stays.

Magazine ad for Warner’s corsets, about 1917.

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Corset garter hooks often broke, and their long lacing ribbons often snapped off. For women, access to a store such as Spirella’s on Chautauqua’s premises was practically essential, since the nearest town where a lingerie store might be found was miles away.

Trade card for Dr. Strong’s Tampico Corset.

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Once a lady had donned her chemise or slip (sometimes called a shift), she put on her corset. Then she added other layers of undergarments:

Corset cover
Drawers
Bustle(s)
As many as 5 layers of petticoats

Over all of that she donned her dress or skirt with shirtwaist.

Doctor and Madame Strong brand corsets touted the medical benefits of wearing their corsets.

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This 1908 newspaper ad in the Omaha Daily Bee shows some of the many different undergarments women wore under their clothes.

A woman’s corset was essential; she wore a corset wherever she went, no matter what she was doing.

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Of course, The Spirella Company was not the only corset manufacturer in the United States. There were many such companies, each vying for their share of the corset market.

F. C. Corset Company trade card from about 1890.

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What set Spirella apart from their competition was that they specialized in custom-made corsets.

In fact, the Spirella Parlour at Chautauqua is the only known retail location for Spirella Corsets in America. Instead of opening stores, The Spirella Company hired a legion of women called corsetières who were sent to customers’ homes. The corsetières took the customer’s measurements and consulted on the correct model of Spirella corset based on the lady’s figure type.

Spirella Corset Company diagram showing the many body measurements their corsetieres took in order to achieve a perfect fit.

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According to Spirella’s 1913 customer brochure:

“The secret of being well dressed lies in your figure, and your figure is made or ruined by your corset.”

You can see The Spirella Corset Company’s 1913 brochure distributed by their corsetières to customers. The booklet is filled with nice illustrations of the different models of corsets they offered, and offers guidance on how to select the proper corset based on body type. Just click here.

You can also watch this fun video that shows the many layers of undergarments women wore in the late 1800s and early 1900s:

Did you know . . .

. . .  as essential as a corset was to every woman’s wardrobe, Isabella never mentioned corsets in any of her many books and stories. She did mention shifts and petticoats, but never made mention of corsets.

 

The Bicycle Craze

22 Jun

Today it’s Bike to Work Day in Colorado and people all over the state are dusting off their two-wheelers and heading out to work.

An 1887 newspaper ad.

An 1887 newspaper ad.

Bicycles have been around since the mid-1800s, when they were something of a novelty. They were expensive to buy and maintain, and they were sold almost exclusively to men.

Figure 2 from "The Modern Bicycle" by Charles Spencer, 1876.

Figure 2 from “The Modern Bicycle” by Charles Spencer, 1876.

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Figure 4 from "The Modern Bicycle" by Charles Spencer, 1876.

Figure 4 from “The Modern Bicycle” by Charles Spencer, 1876.

It took exceptional balance and strength to operate an early bicycle and there were inherent dangers in their design.

An 1879 bicycle ad.

An 1879 bicycle ad.

When Isabella published Monteagle in 1886, bicycle riding was an acceptable pastime only for men of means. Her character, Hart Hammond, was a young man caught up in the bicycle craze.

Notice of a bicycle race. From The Advocate (Topeka, Kansas), June 21, 1893.

Notice of a bicycle race. From The Advocate (Topeka, Kansas), June 21, 1893.

He belonged to a bicycle club, attended races, and may even have ridden in some races himself.

The starting line for a men's bicycle race.

The starting line for a men’s bicycle race.

Of all the many things which gave Hart’s mother anxiety, Hart’s involvement with a bicycle club “troubled her the most.”

An undated trade card depicting an early bicycle club on the move.

An undated trade card depicting an early bicycle club on the move.

As bicycle design matured, bicycling became safer. By the mid-1890s the early high-perch models had evolved into bicycles very similar in design to our modern bikes.

An 1897 magazine ad for boys' bicycles.

An 1897 magazine ad for boys’ bicycles.

 

An 1893 ad for a cycle.

An 1893 ad for Victor cycles.

With those design changes, it was feasible for women to take up the sport. But there was an inherent danger of ladies’ skirts getting caught in the wheels.

An early trade card targeting women bicycle riders.

An early trade card targeting women bicycle riders.

And corsets made breathing difficult for women even when they were relaxing; when it came to bicycle riding, women could do little but coast downhill without fainting.

A 1904 ad depicting a corseted female cyclist.

A 1904 ad depicting a corseted female cyclist.

But that soon changed. As cycling became all the rage in America, a host of supporting industries sprang up. Clothing manufacturers produced ladies’ riding costumes.

An 1895 magazine illustration of bicycling outfits for men and women.

An 1895 magazine illustration of bicycling outfits for men and women.

And they marketed corsets designed specifically for the active woman.

A 1902 ad for athletic corsets.

A 1902 ad for athletic corsets.

Bicycle manufacturers also began to cater to women riders. They designed new models exclusively for ladies; and they held classes on how to correctly mount and ride bicycles.

An 1897 ad for a ladies' bike.

An 1897 ad for a ladies’ bike.

Ladies joined previously men-only bicycle clubs or formed their own.

Newspaper coverage of a bicyclist's parade, watched by more than 100,000 San Franciscans.From the San Francisco Call, July 26, 1896.

Newspaper coverage of a bicyclist’s parade, watched by more than 100,000 San Franciscans.From the San Francisco Call, July 26, 1896.

They published member magazines and sold guide books about the best routes for bicycle excursions through cities or into the countryside.

Photograph of a lady cyclist. 1912.

Photograph of a lady cyclist. 1912.

The bicycle opened up a world of new transportation and freedom for women back in the early 1900s; and today we celebrate the important place the humble bicycle still holds in our lives.

Sports_Bicycles ed

Here are some fun videos you can watch about early bicycling:

Restored footage of an 1899 display of bicycle riding by the Catford Ladies’ Cycling Club in London:

The history of bicycling in early Denver, Colorado:

A clip of “The 1900 House” featuring bicycle riding at the turn of the century:

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A Tour of Chautauqua: A Healthy Body

8 Nov

In the middle of the 19th Century a new craze began to take hold on American college campuses. The new fad was a revolutionary form of physical exercise called gymnastics.

Image of a Chautauqua ExerciseClass in Physical Education 1913

A Chautauqua exercise class in Physical Education, 1913

German in origin, gymnastics spread in popularity and were ultimately integrated into college sports programs. By the end of the century, gymnastics training—as well as the concept of regular exercise for overall health and well-being—made the leap into public consciousness and became a popular concept in the lives of everyday Americans.

The founders of Chautauqua Institution saw the rise of public interest in physical education and knew the concept had a place at Chautauqua. Bishop John Vincent strongly believed that a healthy body was essential to a healthy mind and soul.

Quote from Bishop John Vincent: "Self-Improvementin all our faculties, for all of us, through all time, for the greatest good of all people--this is the Chautauqua idea."

Chautauqua had always offered plenty of exercise for visitors who wanted to be active. There were athletic clubs for men, women and children. Classes were offered in hiking and riding bikes; wrestling and fencing; swimming, diving, hurdle-jumping and golf.

Image of swimmers in the lake at Chautauqua Institution, 1908

Bathing at Chautauqua, 1908

Even their courses on gardening and horticulture emphasized the mental and physical benefits of growing orchard and garden crops.

Image of beginning riders posing with their bikes in the Bicycle School circa 1896

Beginning riders in the Bicycle School, ca. 1896

Image of shuffleboard players at the Chautauqua Sports Club about 1920

A leisurely game of shuffleboard at the Chautauqua Sports Club, ca. 1920s

With the nation’s growing interest in fitness and outdoor sports came an increased demand for trained teachers of athletics. Chautauqua Institution answered the call by establishing the Chautauqua School of Physical Education. The school focused on preparing teachers for placement at schools, universities, Young Men’s Christian Associations, and athletic clubs; and they were the first to give certificates to teachers in physical education.

Image of physical education students at the Chautauqua in 1896

Students at the Chautauqua Gymnasium, 1896

As usual, Chautauqua Institution offered the best instruction that could be furnished in several lines of athletics.

And, as always, Chautauqua assembled the country’s premier instructors for each area of specialty. Here, for instance, is a roster of the faculty during the summer of 1903:

Image listing the 1903 Faculty of Chautauqua School of Physical Education

Between 1886 (when the school was founded) and 1904 the school trained an estimated 1,200 to 1,500 physical education teachers from across the United States. In addition to the Normal Course, the school offered classes “suited to the needs of men, women, misses, boys and children.”

Image of Chautauqua Class in Physical Culture dated 1896

Chautauqua Class in Physical Culture, 1896

In other words, summer visitors to Chautauqua had ample opportunity to learn track and field, gymnastics, and virtually every other athletic technique from the country’s best instructors, assembled in one place.

Quote by Carrica Le Favre: To each spiritual function responds a function of the body. To each grand function of the body corresponds a spiritual act."

A unique aspect of the physical education training offered at Chautauqua was the melding of three different physical education systems.

  • The German gymnastics system was based on strenuous exercise performed on equipment such as pommel horses, parallel bars, climbing walls and rope mechanisms.
  • The Swedish gymnastics system focused on calisthenics, stretching and breathing.
  • And the Delsartean system integrated lighted physical exercise with artistic movement and relaxation techniques. The system was named for Francois Delsarte, who devoted his life to studying the laws of human motion, gesture and expression.

Together these three systems formed the school of physical culture. As students learned to master the different techniques, they often exhibited their skills in the Chautauqua Amphitheater.

Image of a gymnastics Class exhibiting in the Amphitheatre circa 1895

A Gymnastics Class exhibits in the Amphitheatre, about 1895

Chautauqua Herald Article dated July 19 1901 about a Physical Education Class exhibition

Click on this image to read a 1901 article from the Chautauqua Herald about a Physical Education Class exhibition

The Physical Culture exhibitions were extremely popular as a form of entertainment for summer Chautauquans. At the time, most people had never before seen athletes displaying skills with light devices such as dumb-bells, rings, poles, and Indian Clubs. As a source of entertainment, these displays were something of a phenomenon.

Image of a Physical Culture Class displaying Gymnastic Compositions 1890

But athletes didn’t demonstrate strength and skill alone. The Delsartean system stressed beauty of movement. Under Delsartean teaching it wasn’t enough for students to simply lift a dumb-bell in front of an audience; they learned to lift dumb-bells in prescribed forms that created pleasing compositions, all accompanied to appropriate music.

Image of a physical culture class using dumb-bells, 1890

Physical Culture Class using dumb-bells, 1890

Image of a physical culture class using gymnastic rings, 1890

A Physical Culture Class using rings, 1890

Image of a Physical Culture Class using gymnastic poles, 1890

A Physical Culture Class using gymnastic poles, 1890

Image of a Physical Culture Class using Indian Clubs 1890

Physical Culture Class using Indian Clubs, 1890

Perhaps the most popular portion of the program was the display of mastery of Indian Clubs. Indian Clubs looked something like modern-day bowling pins. They were often hollow with removable tops so sand or other substances could be inserted to give them weight. By swinging the clubs according to Delsartean rhythms and movements, men, women and children got an effective upper body workout.

Image of a man demonstrating an Indian Club Exercise

Image of a man demonstrating an Indian Club Exercise

Isabella Alden wrote about a public performance of Indian Clubs in her short story “Agatha’s Unknown Way.” She described the exhibition as “fancy club-swinging.”

Image of a woman demonstrating an Indian Club exercise

Demonstrations like the one Isabella described were extremely popular and drew large audiences, which is exactly what happened in “Agatha’s Unknown Way.”

Image of a woman demonstrating an Indian Club Exercise

In the story, the solo performer was a woman, which would have been very unusual at the time, and she certainly would have drawn a crowd. She also probably stimulated audience members to try exercising with Indian Clubs themselves.

Quote by Carrica Le Favre: "Who can know that we are beautiful, good and true if we do not show it forth through the instrument that is given us for that purpose?"

It would have been easy enough to learn how. By the turn of the century over 20 different best-selling books had been published on Delsartean techniques. People bought the instruction books and used them to practice the system of movement and exercise in the privacy of their own homes.

Other exercise-at-home books sold well, too, such as this Ladies’ Home Calisthenics book published in 1890.

Image of frontispiece from the book, Ladies Home Calisthenics published in 1890

In this book, push-ups, weight lifting, and club swinging exercises were modified for women in consideration of the restrictions on their movements caused by their corsets.

Image of woman holding hand weights and flexing her wrists in 1890

Hand Exercise from Ladies’ Home Calisthenics, 1890

Image of woman doing push-ups against a table in 1890

How to do push-ups, from Ladies’ Home Calisthenics, 1890

Women were expected to wear their corsets at all times, even while exercising; but at least one corset manufacturer, spotting the new exercise trend, advertised that women wearing their corset could “perform in comfort any exercise of physical culture.”

. . . . . . . . . .Image of corset advertisement showing woman holding hand weights from 1890     Image of corset ad showing woman riding a bike from 1890

The physical culture movement wasn’t just about lifting weights and swinging clubs. The Delsartean system had at its core a principle of movement based on art, relaxation, balance and the natural flow of breath. Over time, the Delsartean system expanded to address areas of “self-expression.” For example, some public speaking classes at Chautauqua adopted the breathing and relaxation techniques designed by Delsarte, as did courses on deportment and “self-expression.”

Announcement in 1901 edition of Chautauqua Herald announcing class in self-expression

Announcement of a new class at Chautauqua

In Four Mothers at Chautauqua Isabella Alden wrote about a Chautauqua class on relaxation that was founded on Delsarte’s principles. Grumpy Mrs. Bradford learned about the relaxation techniques after her daughter Isabel showed her a brochure about the class.

“‘Exercise that rests.’ I wonder what kind it can be? I’m sure I have exercise enough, but I must say I don’t feel especially rested. Why in the world do you want me to go and look on at those idiots twisting their bodies into all sorts of shapes? Look at this one trying to reach her toes without tipping over! I must say I have no patience with women who make fools of themselves taking such exercises. It is bad enough for silly girls to waste their time and money in that way.”

However, she had turned from her doorway and was allowing the eager Isabel to pilot her down the avenue toward the “School of Expression.” She continued to read, as she walked, and to make comments. “‘It is not the work we do, but the energy we waste when not working that exhausts us.’ Humph, much she knows about it! I never waste any energy.”

Yet perhaps there was never a woman who wasted more than did Mrs. Bradford. The trouble with her, as with many another, was that she did not know herself.

She read on: “‘Learn to relax, to let go—physically and mentally—to untie the fuss and worry knots.’ Yes, I wonder how? It’s easy enough to talk!” But the tone was less scornful; there was even a touch of wistfulness in it.

Isabel caught at the wistful tone and answered it.

“You wait, Mother, she will tell you how. She says she has been doing it a good many years, and has rested more tired women than she can count.”

And it was a fact that as soon as the teacher began to talk, to explain, to answer with ready comprehension and sympathy the volley of questions poured at her, to move that supple body of hers that seemed to have no more weight in it than a cork, and did her instant bidding with an unfailing ease and grace, Mrs. Bradford discovered what every member of the large class had done: that here was one body that was a willing servant, instead of a tyrant demanding from the jaded spirit impossibilities.

“You want to learn how to get a good healthy ‘tired,’ that will make rest a joy, and work that follows it a pleasure;” she said brightly, as if that was a very ordinary lesson easily mastered.

Mrs. Bradford, from listening with an air of endurance as one who had been smuggled in against her will, grew interested, grew absorbed in the genial flow of talk that was not a lecture nor a lesson, and yet was distinctly both. When she came to herself, and found herself standing with the others trying to reach her toes without tipping over—the precise effort that she had so sharply criticized—she did not know whether to be ashamed, and indignant at somebody, or to laugh. But fun got the upper hand, and she joined in the hearty laugh that was going the rounds at the expense of them all. After that, she forgot that it was a class, and a lesson, and that she was a middle-aged woman with dignity to sustain. For a full half hour she did that excellent thing for such women as she:  forgot Mrs. Bradford entirely.

Mrs. Bradford laughed outright, a merry laugh such as she had not in years relaxed sufficiently to give. The comic side of this strange morning was getting possession of her.

Next stop of our tour of Chautauqua: The Teacher’s Retreat

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Click here to read more about Four Mothers at Chautauqua.

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Cover for Agatha's Unknown WayYou can read “Agatha’s Unknown Way”  for free! Click on the book cover to read Isabella Alden’s short story now.

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You can learn more about the Delsartean system of Physical Culture by following these links:

Read about “the Philosophy of Rest” in an article that appeared in the August 1895 edition of The Chautauquan

Delsartean Physical Culture, by Carrica Le Favre (1892), available on Google Books.

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Other sources from the period:

Physical Culture, by E. B. Houghton (1891)

Physical Culture, by Benjamin Franklin Johns (1900)

A Delsartean Scrapbook, by Frederic Sanburn (1890)

Gestures and Attitudes; an Exposition of the Delsarte Philosophy of Expression, by Edward Barrett Warman (1892)

 

Writer Jenny Berlin

Faith, romance, and a place to belong

The Hall in the Grove

Author of Classic Christian Fiction

Isabella Alden

Author of Classic Christian Fiction

Britt Reads Fiction

Reviews and giveaways for Christian fiction and sweet, clean fiction. Bringing readers information on great stories and connecting authors with their readers.

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